Ewing's sarcoma - treatment and diagnosis
Ewing's sarcoma tumor is one of the three leaders among malignant bone neoplasms, mainly found in children (only osteosarcoma is ahead of it).
This tumor almost never occurs in adults over 30 years old, and a child under 5 years old can also rarely get sick with it. Most often Ewing's sarcoma occurs in children 10 - 15 years old, occasionally affecting soft tissues (extraosseous type). The bony variety is diagnosed in 87% of cases, extraosseous atypical Ewing's sarcoma - in 8%, and another 5% falls on NET. The latest oncology of "childhood" is a primitive neuroectodermal formation, which has many similar features with Ewing's sarcoma.
Usually such tumors form in the bones of the extremities, but occasionally they can be seen in the pelvis and even the soft tissues of the chest.
Risk factors and symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma tumor
Scientists have not been able to identify the reasons for the formation and development of Ewing's sarcoma. Among the risk factors, only gender (it appears more often in boys), race (more often in whites) and age (Ewing's sarcoma is diagnosed in 10 - 20-year-olds in 64 percent of cases). Prevention of this disease is impossible because the cause is unknown.
The most common symptom of childhood bone cancer (Ewing's sarcoma) is severe pain when mutated bone cells are affected. It can be caused by a fracture or spread to the periosteum.
Another symptom that occurs in 60% of patients is swelling or induration, as well as increased body temperature. Less often (mainly with stage 4 bone cancer and the appearance of metastases), fatigue and weight loss may appear.
Ewing's tumor - how to stage it
Determining the stage of Ewing's sarcoma is important for prescribing treatment ... Basically, Israeli doctors distinguish 2 phases of the disease.
The first phase (stages 1 and 2 of Ewing's sarcoma) is localized. With her, the tumor is only in the tissue where it was formed, gradually spreading to nearby muscles.
The second phase (stages 3 and 4 of Ewing's sarcoma) is metastatic. With her, metastases of Ewing's sarcoma spread throughout the body, from the lungs, liver and lymph nodes to the bone marrow and even the head.
Treatment of Ewing's sarcoma in Israel
Ewing's sarcoma is treated through surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, based on the location of the tumor, the stage of the disease, the patient's health.
During the first phase, the tumor-affected bone (less often soft tissue) can be surgically removed without disrupting the functionality of the organ. In later stages, removal of the tumor tissue will cause complete organ failure.
In the middle of the 20th century, Ewing's sarcoma was treated by amputation of the affected limb. Today, only the affected bones or joints are removed, replacing them with grafts.
If phase 2 of the disease has come and metastases have affected organs vital for a person, a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is used. The cost of treating Ewing's sarcoma in Israel needs to be specified individually, it depends on how much the disease has developed and which organs it has affected.