Adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland - types and symptoms
The thyroid gland is an important organ of the human body that produces hormones that regulate metabolic processes that ensure the normal functioning of the body. There are many diseases of the thyroid gland, including the appearance of various formations.
In most cases, these neoplasms are benign, but a malignant tumor, adenocarcinoma, can also occur. This type of cancer is a malignant tumor that develops from the cells of the glands. Women are more susceptible to the disease than men. Symptoms of adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland include:
- lump (swelling) on the neck where the thyroid gland is located;
- neck pain;
- discomfort when swallowing ;
- difficulty breathing;
- unreasonable cough;
- hoarse voice;
- swollen lymph nodes;
- weight loss , fatigue.
The thyroid gland consists of A cells that produce the hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine, and C cells that produce calcitonin. Carcinoma can form from any type of cell.
Tumors are classified according to the structure and type of altered tissues.
- Papillary - occurs in seventy percent of cases, such tumors grow slowly and rarely give distant metastases.
- Medullary - diagnosed quite rarely (no more than 5% of cases), formed from mutated C-cells. Medullary carcinoma is quite aggressive, as it spreads to the lymph nodes and does not respond well to treatment.
- Anaplastic carcinoma is also rare, grows and spreads rapidly, and affects the vessels and trachea. This type of cancer may not respond to surgery.
- Follicular adenocarcinoma occurs in about twenty percent of all thyroid cancers. The tumor is formed from A-cells, looks like a follicle and rarely metastases. It responds well to treatment.
Israeli specialists have extensive experience in the treatment of thyroid adenocarcinoma and other types of cancer, and Israeli clinics are ready to accept patients from Ukraine.
How to diagnose thyroid carcinoma?
Adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland is mainly detected in the early stages and can be effectively cured. For timely diagnosis in modern medicine, the following are used:
- primary examination by an endocrinologist;
- ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland;
- magnetic resonance imaging;
- blood test for hormones and tumor markers;
- node biopsy followed by cytological and histological examination.
Timely high-quality diagnostics allows detecting papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic adenocarcinomas the thyroid gland (thyroid gland) at an early stage, when the tumor is very small (microcarcinoma) and is easily treatable.
Qualified medical assistance in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid carcinoma can be obtained in Israeli clinics equipped with the most advanced technical devices for diagnosis and treatment.
Treatment and prognosis
If diagnostic studies confirm the malignant nature of the neoplasm, then doctors most often resort to surgical intervention for excision of the tumor. In the initial stages, only one part of the thyroid gland is removed, and in the third or fourth, the organ is removed completely.
After the operation, the administration of radioactive iodine is prescribed, which destroys metastases, as well as hormonal drugs that reduce the level of TSH, which stimulates the thyroid gland. If the metastases have not disappeared with radioactive iodine, radiation therapy can be used, which also relieves symptoms. In the case of inoperable cancer, chemotherapy drugs are used. Most often, in the treatment of anaplastic, medullary, follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma, several treatments are used simultaneously.
Comprehensive assistance in undergoing treatment in Israel or receiving remote consultations is provided by BK MEDICAL LOGISTIC, which supports and accompanies the patient at all stages: from diagnosis to recovery.