Histological examination is an informative and rather effective way to determine the presence of abnormal processes and malignant oncological formations in organs. Modern medicine makes extensive use of histological preparations for diagnosing cancers and determining pathological changes in tissues. The method in which histology preparations are used with maximum efficiency is universal and is used in many laboratories of Ukraine.
Various types of histological preparations
Each histological preparation is made in laboratory conditions and is a sample of living tissues and cells taken from a patient for in-depth research. Special preparations for histology can be obtained during or after a surgical intervention, by biopsy (by pinching off a piece of biomaterial) or by autopsy (when tissue fragments are taken after opening already in the deceased).
Universal histology preparations represent are smears, prints, the thinnest sections, which are specially prepared for further study under a microscope. The type of preparation will depend on the characteristics of the organ that needs histological examination.
Preparation of histological preparations: process features
Creation and preparation of histo-slides is a rather complex multilevel process that includes several stages.
- Fixation. This stage allows you to stabilize the structure of the biomaterial and exclude its decomposition. For these purposes, special fixing liquids are used, such as alcohol or formalin.
- Hardening. All excess liquid is removed from the preparation and soaked in paraffin. As a result of this stage, the sample under study becomes hard, which is convenient for its subsequent cutting.
- Pouring. A piece of tissue is embedded in paraffin and a small rectangular block is obtained.
- Cut. To deeply examine the tissue, you should make the thinnest possible sections. For this, high-precision equipment with sharp blades is used.
- Staining of the preparation. The staining method is chosen depending on the characteristics and purposes of the analysis.
- Conclusion under glass. The last stage involves placing the cut under a special glass. It can be stored in this form for many years.